1/29/2020 Genesis 34 - Dishonor and Betrayal

Genesis Chapter 34

Note: Since the close of the last chapter it appears to have been about ten years between the

time of meeting with Esau and Jacob. Now Dinah is a young woman. Scholars put her

age between 13 to 17 years of age.

Verse 01. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the

daughters of the land.

Key Phrase: went out to see the daughters of the land; The land of Canaan, to visit them and

maybe make an acquaintance with them. She, having no sisters to converse with

at home, it might be a temptation to her to go abroad. The Targum of Jonathan,

mentions that she went to see the manners, customs, and fashions of the women

of that country, to learn them, to see their habit and dress, and how they

ornamented themselves.

Verse 02. And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he

took her, and lay with her, and defiled her.

Key Phrase: And when Shechem the son of Hamor; From whom the city had its name, near

which Jacob and his family now were:

Key Phrase: the Hivite, prince of the country; Hamor was an Hivite, which was one of the

nations of the land of Canaan, and this man was the prince or a principal man of

that nation, as well as of Shechem. Josephus writings calls him a king.

Key Phrase: saw her; That is, Dinah, what a beautiful person she was, and was enamored with

Her. She is different than the Hivite young women of the area.

Key Phrase: he took her: By force, as the Targum of Jonathan states that is physically

kidnapped her.

Key Phrase: and lay with her, and defiled her; "humbled" or "afflicted her" had fornication

with her . It is a rule with the Jews, that every such act, which is done by force, is

called an humiliation and affliction to the person and the family.

Note: Even in this time period a male could be stoned to death for such an act. And if the

female consented she could be stoned to death also.

See Special Note: Last page of this handout.

Verse 03. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and

spake kindly unto the damsel.

1.

Key Phrase: And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob,.... His inclination was to her,

she was always in his thoughts; it was not a mere lustful desire that was suddenly

raised, and soon over, but a constant and continued affection he bore to her.

Key Phrase: and he loved the damsel; sincerely and heartily:

Key Phrase: and spake kindly unto the damsel; Such things as tended to comfort her she

being sad and sorrowful. To soften her mind towards him, and take off the

resentment of it to him, because of the injury he had done her. To gain her good

will and affection, and her consent to marry him. Professing great love to her,

promising her great things, what worldly grandeur and honor she would be

advanced to, and how kindly he would behave towards her; which might take with

her, and incline her to yield to his motion, which having obtained, he took the

following method.

Verse 04. And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife.

Key Phrase: And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor; And told him the whole affair, at

least what a strong affection he had for Dinah.

Key Phrase: saying, get me this damsel to wife; By which he meant not only that he would

give his consent that he might marry her, but that he would get her parents'

consent unto it and settle the matter with them. Which it appears that even

among Heathen nations the consent of parents on both sides was judged

necessary for marriage.

Note: It seems by this as if Dinah was now detained in the house of Hamor or Shechem, and

was in the home or near at hand when Shechem addressed his father about her. See

Genesis 34:26.

Verse 05. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter: now his sons were with his

cattle in the field: and Jacob held his peace until they were come.

Key Phrase: And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; That is, that Shechem

had defiled her; the report of this was brought him very probably by one of the

maids which attended her to the city; for it was hardly to be thought that she

should go thither alone, and which must be very distressing to Jacob to hear of.

Key Phrase: and Jacob held his peace until they were come; He expressed no attitude, but

patiently bearing the rebuke and disrespect of Dinah and his family; nor taking any

steps in response until his sons were come home from the field; with whom he

chose to advise and whose assistance he would want, if necessary to use force to

get Dinah out of the hands of Shechem, or to avenge the injury done her.

Note: Jacob (now called Israel) was not blaming Leah for letting Dinah go out. Or not keeping

a proper watch over her. He did not say anything of it to any in the family. Not even to

express his displeasure at Shechem and not vowing revenge on him for it,

Verse 06. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune with him.

Note: The father of the offender goes to talk with the father of the daughter who has been

violated and disgraced. Hamor is hoping to reduce the stress between them and use his

position to influence the situation in favor of his son Shechem.

Verse 07. And the sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it: and the men were

grieved, and they were very wroth, because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying

with Jacob's daughter; which thing ought not to be done.

Key Phrase: And the sons of Jacob came out of the field, when they heard it; Either by a

messenger Jacob sent to them, to acquaint them with it, or by some other hand.

be it as it will, as soon as they heard of the abuse of their sister. They

immediately left their flocks to the care of their servants, and came to their

father's tent.

Key Phrase: and the men were grieved and were very wroth; They were grieved for the sin

committed against God, as well as for the injury done to their sister. They were

wroth or extremely angry against Shechem the cause of it.

Key Phrase: because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob's daughter; All sin is

folly, being a transgression of the law of God founded in the highest wisdom and

particularly uncleanness and that branch of it. The act of deflowering a virgin by

force and non-consent. This action being committed on Jacob's daughter and

whose name was of Israel. It also is "against" Israel (Jacob) and to his grief and to

the reproach of him and his family.

Key Phrase: which thing ought not to be done; Being against the law of the land and of nature

to do such an action by force and violence. Also against the law of nations to

allow it to occur and not be without judgement because of a person’s status or

family’s status.

Verse 08. And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longeth for

your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife.

Key Phrase: And Hamor communed with them; This means that he spoke not only with the

parents of Dinah but also all of her brothers that had come in from the fields.

Note: the word Hamor means "an ass" and Shechem "a shoulder".

Key Phrase: saying, the soul of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter; The only

daughter of the family as we know of. The term soul and longeth have a couple of

different meanings in Hebrew. The Hebrew word translated as "soul" is the word

nephesh ( Strong's #5315 ). Some of these translations include; the soul, spirit,

life, person, mind, heart, creature, body, dead, desire, man, appetite. The word

longeth in Hebrew (haw-sheh-KAW) means to cling, i.e., join, (figuratively) to love,

delight in; elliptically; to deliver in (Strong's Concordance: H2836)

Key Phrase: I pray you give her him to wife; Hamor not only requests the consent of the

parents of the Dinah, but of her brothers also, which in those times and countries

seems to have been usual to ask and have, see Genesis 24:50.

Note: The use of the word pray by Hamor, was to illicit familiarity and a sense of similar beliefs.

This from a pagan worshiper and not a true follower of God.

Verse 09. And make ye marriages with us, and give your daughters unto us, and take our

daughters unto you.

Key Phrase: And make ye marriages with us; There was no objection on their side it lay on the

other. Remember that Abraham's servant was charged by him not to take a wife

of the Canaanites to his son Isaac. The same charge was given Jacob by Isaac in

Genesis 24:3. Therefore Jacob would never agree that his children should marry

any of that nation. Marriages with them were afterwards forbidden by the law of

Moses, found in Deuteronomy 7:3.

Note: That Hamor and Sheckem believe that in time other daughters or the offspring of Jacob

could be married between them and Jacobs. This would have also included the

maidservants and bond women under his domain.

Verse 10. And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye

therein, and get you possessions therein.

Special Note: What is Hamor really stating here? This whole situation of insult has now

become a point of commerce not of forgiveness of a wrong done to them.

See the following:

Key Phrase: And ye shall dwell with us; Peaceably and quietly, not as sojourners only, but as

inhabitants.

Key Phrase: and the land shall be before you; To choose what part of it they pleased to dwell

in, and which they should have in their own power and possession.

Key Phrase: dwell and trade you therein; In any sort of traffic and commerce the land would

admit of, and they should best choose. (cont.)

Key Phrase: and get you possessions therein; Buy houses and land, and enjoy them, they and

their posterity; these are the arguments used by Hamor to gain the consent of

Jacob and his family that his son might marry Dinah.

Verse 11. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your

eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give.

Note: This is the first time we are informed for sure that the Shechem is present who

committed the disgraceful act.

Verse 12. Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto

me: but give me the damsel to wife.

Note: It must be acknowledged that the father and the son were disposed to make whatever amends they could for the grievous offence that had been committed. The fact that they requested Dinah as exchange was an insult to the family and reduced her to a procession or that she was less and could be bought.

Verse 13. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, and

said, because he had defiled Dinah their sister:

Note: Their conduct was unjustifiable in neither expressing regret nor restoring Dinah to her

family. As well as insulting in suggesting that they request a dowry from them what ever

they asked he would give. The fact that it is the father that presents the dowry for the

daughter.

Key Phrase: And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor deceitfully; Proposing the

marriage of their sister on terms after mentioned in the next verse, when they

never intended it should ever be granted.

Key Phase: and said; Or spoke in this deceitful manner; this ties the two verses together.

Key Phrase: because he had defiled Dinah their sister; They were filled with indignation at

him, and fired up with resentment against him and vowed within themselves

revenge upon him.

Verse 14. And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is

uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us:

Key Phrase; we cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; Not that

there was any law against it at that time; and there were. (cont.)

Key Phrase: (cont.) on the other hand, precedents for it both in Isaac and Jacob, who had

married the daughters of uncircumcised persons. Nor do they plead any law, only

that it was not becoming their character or agreeably to their religion. It was not

honorable in their esteem.

Key Phrase: for that were a reproach unto us; They should be reflected upon for slighting the

institution of circumcision, which was of God. So they pretend it might be

interpreted, should they enter into an agreement with uncircumcised persons.

Note: Hypocrisy and deceit, in all cases vicious, are infinitely more so when accompanied with

a show of religion. Here the sons of Jacob, under the pretense of conscientious scruples

conceal a scheme of treachery and deceit far beyond the one but to many innocents.

Verse 15. But in this will we consent unto you: If ye will be as we be, that every male of you

be circumcised;

Verse 16. Then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters to us,

and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people.

Verse 17. But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our

daughter, and we will be gone.

Key Phrase: But if ye will not hearken to us to be circumcised; Will not agree to this condition

of circumcision:

Key Phrase: then will we take our daughter; This should have been noted by Hamor and

Sheckem that this was a threat hidden in the context of hearing what they wanted.

The Targum of Jonathan adds by force in his historical account.

Key Phrase: and we will be gone: They are saying once they have Dinah they would depart

from this part of the country, and go elsewhere if not agreed upon.

Verse 18. And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem Hamor's son.

Verse 19. And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's

daughter: and he was more honorable than all the house of his father.

Key Phrase: And the young man deferred not to do the thing; Note again that in translation

the verb deferred in our language would did not put off or delay to be circumcised

himself, and to get all the males of the city circumcised;

Key Phrase: because he had delight in Jacob's daughter; He really loved her and delighted in

her person and company. Iit was not the effect of a brutish lust but a true

affection he bore to her, that he desired her in marriage. Even though he had

done such a disgraceful thing in taking her by force.

Key Phrase: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father; Though he had

done a terrible thing in defiling Jacob's daughter. Yet in this he was honorable,

that he sought to marry her. To do anything that was in his power to recompence

the injury; and he was honorable in keeping covenant and compact with men.

Note: Shechem and was honest, upright, and sincere, to fulfil the condition imposed on him

and agreed to. He was in greater esteem among the citizens than any of his father's

house, which made it the easier for him to get their consent to be circumcised.

Verse 20. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and communed

with the men of their city, saying,

Key Phrase: And Hamor and Shechem his son went unto the gate of their city; Where courts

of judicature were held, and all public affairs respecting the common interest of

the city where transacted. Here, no doubt, Hamor their prince summoned them

to come, by the usual method in which the citizens were convened on certain

occasions. Just like they did in Abraham’s day.

Key Phrase: and communed with the men of their city; Upon the subject of entering into an

alliance with Jacob's family, of admitting them to be fellow citizens with them. Of

their being incorporated among them and becoming one people with them taking

no notice of the true reason of this motion.

Verse 21. These men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade

therein; for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their daughters

to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters.

Key Phrase: These men are peaceable with us; Meaning Jacob and his sons, pointing to their

tents which were near their city. These words were introduced with a preface, in

which notice was taken of Jacob and his family, and their names mentioned, as

here their character is given; that they were men of peaceable dispositions,

harmless and inoffensive, as appeared they had been ever since they came into

these parts.

Key Phrase: therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; Allow them to dwell

where they please, and carry on what trade and traffic in the land they think fit.

Since they are not likely to be quarrelsome and troublesome, but will deal

honestly and honorably and pay duly for what they agree for or merchandise in.

Key Phrase: for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; There is room enough for them

to dwell in, pasturage enough for their cattle and land enough to till, without in the

least incommoding the inhabitants. It is likely to be to their advantage, since they

would pay for what they should purchase or hire and would improve the land

which lay uncultivated.

Key Phrase: let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters;

This was the thing principally aimed at. The rest, both what goes before and what

follows after, were in order to achieve the goal of Shechem.

Verse 22. Only herein will the men consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if

every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised.

Key Phrase: Only herein will the men consent unto us; The only term or condition insisted

upon, to come into an alliance and affinity with us.

Key Phrase: for to dwell with us, to be one people; To become one body or greater entity

place of power, is the following one.

Key Phrase: if every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised; Submitting to

this rite, they agree to take up their residence with us, and be incorporated

among us and become one people.

Verse 23. Shall not their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let

us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us.

Note: That Hamor and Shechem were selling the commerce of the Family of Jacob (Israel) to

the people that they would prosper from such an agreement. It also indicates that

Jacob was still very prosperous by God’s hand in this land.

Verse 24. And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate

of his city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city.

Note: The people (men) of the city listened and agreed to this rite anyone who lived within the

protected structure of the walls and used the gate to come into or leave. Either having a

great opinion of their prince and his son, or with awe of them or love of them. Maybe

even influenced both by their arguments and example, they agreed to what was

proposed to them.

Verse 25. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of

Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon

the city boldly, and slew all the males.

Key Phrase: And it came to pass on the third day when they were sore; In pain and not

healed yet enough to hardly move around.

Key Phrase: that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brethren; The word

brethren indicates they had the same mother and father. These two are the most

provoked at this indignity and abuse of their sister. (cont.)

Key Phrase: took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly; Not fearing the

inhabitants of the city in their current physical disability. Their rising up against

them to defend themselves. For the men of the city had no suspicion of any such

attempt that would be made upon them, and therefore were quite easy and

secure, not expecting nor fearing anything of this kind.

Key Phrase: and slew all the males; Those of age to resist or defend themselves because we

know that in verse 29 it clears up this matter.

See Attachment of Birth Order of Jacobs Children.

Verse 26. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took

Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out.

Key Phrase: And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son, with the edge of the sword; Without

any compassion or mercy of these two. This is not excusing the inhuman

barbarity of this remorseless massacre of the other residents of this city.

Key Phrase: took Dinah out of Shechem’s house and went out; They found her in one of the

locked rooms and physically removed her from his house and went out of the city

to return her home.

Note: It is argued by Historians and scholars that mercy should have been shown Shechem

because he was truly in love of Dinah and Hamor should have died because he did not

discipline his son. And vice versa.

Verse 27. The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had

defiled their sister.

Key Phrase: The sons of Jacob came upon the slain; That is, the rest of them, eight of them

Jacobs sons. Understanding what their two brothers had done, they came and

joined them and partook of taking from them what they found of any worth.

Key Phrase: and spoiled the city; Plundered it of all its goods and substance, spoiled (took) all

the wealth from the inhabitants that would be the women and young children of

the city.

Key Phrase: because they had defiled their sister; One of them had done it, which is imputed

to them all, they not restraining him from it, when it was in their power; and

perhaps approving of it.

Verse 28. They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the

city, and that which was in the field,

Key Phrase: that which was in the field; This is to show that they were not satisfied with what

they had taken from the people of the city but also the property outside the city.

Verse 29. And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and

spoiled even all that was in the house.

Key Phrase: And all their wealth; Or "power" or "strength"; everything that made them

mighty and powerful; their gold and silver, their jewels, and rich furniture of their