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01/15/2020 Bible Study Gen 32:16-32 Jacob prepares to meet Esau

Genesis Chapter 32

Verse 1. And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him.

Note: Jacob now is continuing his journey to Canaan. Jacobs physical home is still a distance

off but the land he is coming into is that promised to Abraham and Isaac and now Jacob

is to inherit.

Key Phrase: and the angels of GOD met him; Literally, the messengers of Elohim, not chance

travelers who informed him of Esau's being in the vicinity, but angels.

Verse 2. And when Jacob saw them, he said, This is God's host: and he called the name of

that place Mahanaim.

Key Phrase: And when Jacob saw them; These appeared in a visible form, most probably

human, and in the habit, and with the accouterments of soldiers.

Key Phrase: he said, This is God’s host; Or army, hence he is often called the Lord of hosts.

Angels have this name from their number, order, strength and military exploits

they perform.

Key Phrase: and he called the name of that place Mahanaim; Which signifies two hosts or

Armies. Either his own family and company making one, and the angels another,

or they very probably appeared in two companies. As two armies, and one went

on one side of Jacob and his family, and the other on the other side. It is believed

by religious scholars that one went before him, and the other behind him. This

was to secure him from any insult of Laban, should he pursue after him. The other

one to protect him from Esau, near whose country Jacob now was of whom he

was in some fear off or in danger from.

Verse 3. And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the

country of Edom.

Key Phrase: And Jacob sent messengers before him unto Esau his brother; These were some

of his own servants he sent to inform him of his coming. By this way he might

learn in what temper and disposition of mind he was towards him.

Key Phrase: unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom: Which had its first name from Seir the

Horite. Esau having married into his family came into the possession of it by

virtue of that marriage. It is recorded that he and his sons drove out the Horites,

the ancient possessors of it. It was afterwards called Edom, a name of Esau, which

he had from the red pottage he sold his birthright for to his brother Jacob.

Genesis 25:30.

Note: Esau it seems was removed from his father's house, and was possessed of a country

after mentioned, called from his name; and which Aben Ezra says lay between Haran and

the land of Israel. This path to Esau did not directly lie in the road Jacob need take to get

home, yet, as it was near him, he did not choose to pass by without seeing his brother.

Verse 4. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Thy

servant Jacob saith thus, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now:

Key Phrase: And he commanded them: Being his servants he gives instruction too.

Key Phrase: saying, thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Being not only a lord of a country,

but his eldest brother. to intimate that he did not insist on the prerogatives of the

birthright and blessing which he had obtained for himself. Leaving it to God to

fulfil his own purpose in his seed. He chose to bespeak in this manner to soften

his mind and let him know he was not a threat to him. Note he does not give up

his right as heir of the blessing and all it contained.

Key Phrase: thy servant Jacob saith thus; Expressing great humility and modesty, though his

father Isaac by his blessing had made him lord over Esau. The time was not come

for this to take place. First his father not being yet dead and second it was to have

its accomplishment not in his own person, but in his posterity or offspring.

Key Phrase: I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now; Jacob had been a

servant in Laban's family for twenty years past. He had an hard master and

therefore could not be the object of his brother's envy, but rather of his pity and

compassion.

Verse 5. And I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and menservants, and women servants: and I

have sent to tell my lord, that I may find grace in thy sight.

Key Phrase: And I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and menservants, and women servants; This

he would have said, so he would know he wasn’t coming to ask anything of him.

As well as put himself and his family upon him as a burden. This would also let him

know that should not treat him with contempt, as a poor mean beggarly creature.

Also to indicate that he should not be ashamed of the relation Jacob was to him.

Key Phrase: and I have sent to tell my lord; of his coming, and of his state and circumstances:

Key Phrase: that I may find grace in thy sight; Share in his good will which was all he wanted.

That friendship, harmony and brotherly love, might subsist between them which

he was very desirous of.

Verse 6. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother Esau, and

also he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him.

2.

Key Phrase: And the messengers returned to Jacob; After they had delivered their message,

with the answer they brought back from Esau.

Key Phrase: saying, we came to thy brother Esau; Which, though not expressed is implied in

these words and is still more manifest by what follows.

Key Phrase: and also he cometh to meet thee; To pay a friendly visit, as they supposed.

Key Phrase; and four hundred men with him; This Esau would have done partly to show his

grandeur and partly out of respect to Jacob, to honor him.

Note: There are some that think this was done with an ill intent to him and which indeed

seems probable.

Verse 7. Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: and he divided the people that was

with him, and the flocks, and herds, and the camels, into two bands;

Key Phrase: Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed; Knowing what he had done to his

brother in getting the birthright and blessing from Isaac instead of Esau. What a

level of hostility Jacob had conceived in his mind against him on that account.

Note: Jacob betrays much weakness and want of faith here when God has promised again and

again that he would he with him. God instructed Jacob that He would keep him, protect

him and return him safe to the land of Canaan. Even when he had just had such an appearance of angels to be his helpers, guardians, and protectors.

Key Phrase: and he divided the people that was with him, and the flocks, and the herds, and

the camels, into two bands: Jacob had some of his servants and shepherds with

a part of the flocks and herds in one band or company. Also some with the rest of

them and the camels, his wives and his children in the other.

Verse 8. And said, If Esau come to the one company, and smite it, then the other company

which is left shall escape.

Key Phrase: And said, if Esau come to the one company, and smite it; The first company,

which perhaps consisted only of some servants, with a part of his cattle. So that if

Esau should come in a hostile manner and fall upon that and slay the servants

Esau would take the cattle as a booty and not pursue him.

Key Phrase: then the other company which is left shall escape; By flight in which most likely

was he himself, his wives and children and the camels to carry them off. Jacob

who would have notice by what should happen to the first band.

Note: One would think, that, notwithstanding all this precaution and wise methods taken,

there could be little expectation of escaping the hands of Esau. If he came out on such an ill design; for whither could they flee? How could they hope

to get out of the reach of four hundred men pursuing after them.,

Verse 9. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the Lord

which saidst unto me, Return unto thy country, and to thy kindred, and I will deal

well with thee:

Key Phrase: And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac; In this

distress he does not consult the teraphim Rachel had taken from her father. Nor

does he call upon the hosts of angels that had just appeared to him to help

protect, and guard him. Jacob prays to God only, the God of his fathers, who had

promised great things to them and had done great things for them.

Key Phrase: the Lord which saidst unto me, return unto thy country, and to thy kindred; The

same God had appeared to him, when in Laban's house and bid him return to his

own country to his father's house. In obedience to which command he was now

on his journey too. His actions so far are according to the will of God. Jacob acts

as though he had no dependence nor put any confidence in anything done by him.

Key Phrase: and I will deal well with thee; Jacob recites God’s promise in this prayer yet he

hoped God in his grace and goodness would have a regard unto him, as he was

doing what he was directed to by him.

Note: The phrase “and I will deal well with thee”; means to bestow good things on thee, both

temporal and spiritual, and among the former, preservation from evils and dangers is

included.

Verse 10. I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast

shewed unto thy servant; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am

become two bands.

Key Phrase: I am not worthy of the least of all thy mercies; Or of any of them, according to

his humble sense of things his mind was now impressed with. He was not worthy

of the least mercy and favor that had been bestowed upon him. Not even of any

temporal mercy, and much less of any spiritual one, and therefore did not expect

any from the hands of God, on account of any merit of his own.

Key Phrase: and of all the truth, which thou hast showed unto thy servant; in performing

promises made to him; grace, mercy, goodness and truth and faithfulness in

the performance of them; Jacob had had a rich experience of both, and was deeply

affected therewith, and which made him humble before God.

Key Phrase; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; The river Jordan is near to which he

now was or at least had it in view with either with the eyes of his body or his mind.

Note: This river he passed over when he went to Haran with his staff in his hand and that only,

which was a shepherd's staff and now a travelling one. He passed "alone" over it, as

Onkelos and Jonathan add by way of illustration; unaccompanied by any, having no

friend with him, nor servant to attend him. Jarchi's paraphrase is, "there was not with

me neither silver nor gold, nor cattle, but my staff only." Just as he was 20 years ago.

Key Phrase: And now I am become two bands; Into which he had now divided his wives,

children, servants, and cattle. He mentions this to acknowledge the great goodness

of God to him, the large increase he had made him and how different his current

circumstances now were to what they were when he was upon this spot, or

thereabouts twenty years ago.

Verse 11. Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau: for I

fear him, lest he will come and smite me, and the mother with the children.

Key Phrase: Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau; For

though his brother and it was his brother Esau that had formerly vowed revenge

upon him and had vowed to kill him, Genesis 27:41, Jacob knew not but that he

was still of the same mind. Which now having an opportunity and in his power to

do it being accompanied with four hundred men feared he would attempt it. Thus

Jacob therefore entreats the Lord, who was greater than he, to deliver him from

falling into his hands, and being destroyed by him.

Key Phrase: for I fear him, lest he will come and smite me, and the mother with the children;

Jacob seems to be more concerned for his wives and children than for himself.

The phrase denotes the utter destruction of his family, the cruelty and inhumanity

that would be exercised therein. Which shows us what an opinion he had of his

brother and of his savage disposition.

Note: Jacob accepted the responsibility for what he had done to Esau in this verse but asked

God to not let what he had done be cast upon his wives and children. Reminds me of

another verse in the bible Ezekiel 18:20.

Verse 12. And thou saidst, I will surely do thee good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea,

which cannot be numbered for multitude.

Key Phrase: And thou saidst, I will surely do thee good; All kind of good most certainly and

constantly. Jacob rightly interpreted the promise, "I will be with thee", Genesis

31:3; for the promise of God's presence includes and secures all needful good to

his people.

Note: From this general promise Jacob draws a special and particular good; the preservation

of him and his family, he was now pleading for.

Key Phase: and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for

multitude; Which could not be fulfilled if he and his family were cut off at once as

he feared. Our God is faithful to who He has promised if we are obedient and

faithful to Him.

Verse 13. And he lodged there that same night; and took of that which came to his hand a

present for Esau his brother;

Key Phrase: And he lodged there that same night, At Mahanaim, or some place near it.

See Map at back of Handout Mahanaim:

Key Phrase: and took of that which came to his hand; The interpretation of the Hebrew here

leaves out the true meaning. It is not what came next to hand. That he did was

with great deliberation, judgment, and prudence. The phrase signifies what he

was in possession of or was in his power to give. As Jarchi rightly interprets it.

Key Phase: a present for Esau his brother: In order to try and pacify him, gain his good

and avert his wrath and displeasure. See Proverbs 18:16.

Note: Though Jacob had prayed to God, committed himself and family to him, and left all with

him. He thought it proper to make use of all prudential means or methods for his safety.

Verse 14. Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams,

Verse 15. Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty kine, and ten bulls, twenty she asses, and

ten foals.

Note: Goats—ewes—camels—kine—asses. As the kinds of cattle are arranged according to

their value, it is remarkable that kine (cows) should be prized above camels; for the milk

of cows was regarded as of little worth. This high estimation of them, therefore, must

have arisen from an increased regard for agriculture, the ploughing being done in the

East by oxen. Asses of course come last, as being the animal used by chieftains for

riding, and therefore prized as matters of luxury. (See Genesis 12:16; Judges 5:10.)

Note: Jacob selected “milch camels” because their milk forms a valuable part of the daily food

of the Arabs. This proportion of one he goat to ten she goats, and of one ram to ten

ewes, is a proper one. Being so judged in other times and countries. It has also shown to

be necessary for the purposes of breeding. Jacob knew by this action which was seen as

acceptable in the culture of the time that superiors are always approached with presents

and the respect expressed is estimated by the quality and amount of the gift. The

present of Jacob consisted of five hundred fifty head of cattle, of different kinds, such as

would be most prized by Esau. It was a most magnificent present skill fully arranged and

proportioned.

Mahanaim (meaning two camps in Hebrew) is a place near Jabbok, beyond the

Jordan River, mentioned a number of times by the Bible.

Note: The precise location of Mahanaim is very uncertain the Biblical data

being inconclusive. The geographical area is made up of a number of

small valley areas with adequate grass and water for livestock .

Verse 16. And he delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by themselves; and

said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space betwixt drove and

drove.

Key Phrase: every drove by themselves; There seems to have been three to as many as five

droves. Very probably the two hundred and twenty goats, male and female, were

in the first drove; and the two hundred and twenty sheep, ewes, and rams, were in

the second drove; and the thirty camels, with their colts the third drove and the

fifty cows and bulls in the fourth drove. With the twenty she asses and ten foals in

the fifth dove, which made in all one hundred and forty.

Note: The order of the droves 1st Goats an offering of Food and Shelter (the goat’s skin and

hair make a great weather barrier.) The meat is to eat and the stomach is used for a

water carrier. 2nd Sheep, Ewes and Rams; Sheep wool for clothing (remember Jacob

had breed the best with God’s instruction. The Ewes and rams show continuing

prosperity to the receiver. 3rd the Thirty camels with their colts would be given to offer

comfort for journeys and carrying on trade to distant lands easily. The fact that it is

thirty (30) acknowledges a person of great stature and substance being honored.

4th Fifty cows and bulls are represent authority and power one who has dominance over

all things. 5th The twenty she asses and ten foals are to acknowledge the persons wives

and children and are used to move heavy objects and carry loads to assist with the

home.

Verse 17. And he commanded the foremost, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee,

and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are

these before thee?

Verse 18. Then thou shalt say, They be thy servant Jacob's; it is a present sent unto my lord

Esau: and, behold, also he is behind us.

Key Phrase: Then thou shall say, they be thy servant Jacob's; Both the goats before them, and

they themselves that had the care of them, belonged to Jacob, who directed them

to speak of him to Esau as his "servant". This should also tell you that Jacob was

also giving these servants to Esau as a gift to take care of the droves for Esau. A

notable generous gift in those times.

Key Phrase: it is a present sent unto my lord Esau; Which is the answer to the second

question in Verse 17.

Key Phrase: and behold also he is behind us; That is, Jacob is coming behind us. This they

were bid to tell, lest he should think that Jacob was afraid of him or had gone

another way. It would appear that Jacob was coming to pay a visit to him and

might expect shortly to see him.

Verse 19. And so commanded he the second, and the third, and all that followed the droves,

saying, On this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him.

Note: The messengers were strictly commanded to say the same words, that Esau might be

more impressed and that the uniformity of the address might appear more clearly to

have come from Jacob himself.

Verse 20. And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will

appease him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his

face; peradventure he will accept of me.

Key Phrase: And say ye moreover, behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us; This is repeated to

impress it upon their minds, that they might be careful of all things, not to forget

that, it being a point of great importance; For the present would have signified

nothing, if Jacob had not appeared in person. Esau would have thought himself at

the least but slighted, As if he was unworthy of a visit from him, and of conver-

sation with him.

Key Phrase: for he said; That is, Jacob, or "had said" in his heart, within himself, as might be

supposed from the whole of his conduct; for what follows are the words of Moses

the historian, as Aben Ezra observes and not of Jacob to his servants, nor of them

to Esau.

Key Phrase: I will appease him with the present that goeth before me, and afterwards I will

see his face: He hoped the present would produce the desired effect; That it

would turn away his wrath from him, and pacify him; and then he should be able

to appear before him and see his face with pleasure. "I will expiate his face", as

some render the words, or make him propitious and favorable; or cover his face,

as Aben Ezra interprets it, that is, cause him to hide his wrath and resentment,

that it shall not appear or cause his fury to cease

Key Phrase: peradventure he will accept of me; Receive him with a show of tenderness and

affection, and in a very honorable and respectable manner.

Verse 21. So went the present over before him: and himself lodged that night in the company.

Key Phrase: So went the present over before him; Over the brook Jabbok, after mentioned,

the night before Jacob did:

Key Phrase: and himself lodged that night in the company; Or “in the camp", either in the

Place called Mahanaim, from the hosts or crowds of angels seen there; or rather in

his own camp, his family and servants.

Note: Due to the fact presented later in this chapter it is more likely that he camped in the

place called Mahanaim.

Verse 22. And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two womenservants, and

his eleven sons, and passed over the ford Jabbok.

Key Phrase: And he rose up that night; In the middle of it, for it was long before break of day,

as appears from Genesis 32:24,

Key Phrase: and took his two wives, and his two womenservants; So his wives Rachel and

Leah and then Bilhah and Zilpah.

Key Phrase: and his eleven sons; Together with Dinah his daughter, though not mentioned,

being the only female child, and a little one:

Key Phrase: and passed over the ford Jabbok; The river, at a place of it where it was fordable,

or where there was a ford or passage.

Note: This was a river that took its rise from the mountains of Arabia, was the border of the

Ammonites, washed the city Rabba, and ran between Philadelphia and Gerasa, and

came into the river Jordan. It is some short distance from the sea of Gennesaret or

Galilee about three or four miles from it.

Verse 23. And he took them, and sent them over the brook, and sent over that he had.

Note: Carry the topic from the previous verse so Jacob sent his whole family over and all of the

servants, cattle tents, everything that he owned so he had no one and nothing with him.

Verse 24. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of

the day.

Key Phrase: And Jacob was left alone; On the other side of Jabbok, his family and cattle

having passed over it; and this solitude he chose, in order to spend some time in

prayer to God for the safety of him and his family.

Key Phrase: and there wrestled a man with him; This is not a phantasm or spectre nor was

this a mere visionary representation of a man, to the imagination of Jacob. Also it

was not done as in the vision of prophecy. It was something real, corporeal and

visible.

Note: We need to acknowledge that this is a divine Person as appears from Jacob's desiring to

be blessed by him. "This wrestling" was real and corporeal on the part of both. The

man took hold of Jacob, and he took hold of the man, and they strove and struggled

together for victoryas wrestlers do. Just to note also that Jacob was in his 80’s at this

time.

Key Phrase: until the breaking of the day; How long this conflict lasted is not certain, perhaps

not long. Jacob rose in the night and did a great deal of business with his family

before this took place.

Verse 25. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his

thigh; and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him.

Key Phrase: And when he saw that he prevailed not against him; That he, the man, or the

Son of God in the form of man, prevailed not against Jacob, by casting him to the

ground, or causing him to desist and leave off wrestling with him. Not because he

could not, but because he would not discourage the faith of Jacob. So that against

future trials and exercises, and especially under his present one Jacob would rely

on God, such were the promises that this divine Person knew were made to Jacob.

Key Phrase: he touched the hollow of his thigh; The hollow part of the thigh or the hollow

place in which the thigh bone moves. The femoral socket or hip socket.

Key Phrase: and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him; That is,

the hip bone, or the thigh bone, was moved out of the hollow place in which it

sets. This was done to let Jacob know that the person he wrestled with was

superior to him, and could easily have overcome him, and obliged him to cease

wrestling with him if he would. That the victory he got over him was not by his

own strength, but by divine assistance and by the sufferance of the man he

wrestled with. So that Jacob had nothing to boast of and truth and reality of this

was not visionary, but a real fact.

Verse 26. And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go,

except thou bless me.

Key Phrase: And he said, Let me go; The man said this, partly to show the prevailing power of